Likewise, application of cocaine to the surface of the eye, due to its paralyzing effect on the sensory nerve endings, inhibits the reflex even under exposure to strong tear gases. Most epizootics have been attributed to importation of infected eggs or fry. We use bio-identical hormones, rather then synthetic or horse derived. Far infrared rays are part of the electromagnetic light spectrum and are close to the light frequency of natural sunlight. C Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. There are many other diseases of the system and it is better to get treated professionally from a medical doctor every time some form of disease shows up in excretory system.
Renal ultrasonography is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The role of the renal biopsy is to diagnose renal disease in which the etiology is not clear based upon noninvasive means clinical history, past medical history, medication history, physical exam, laboratory studies, imaging studies.
In general, a renal pathologist will perform a detailed morphological evaluation and integrate the morphologic findings with the clinical history and laboratory data, ultimately arriving at a pathological diagnosis. A renal pathologist is a physician who has undergone general training in anatomic pathology and additional specially training in the interpretation of renal biopsy specimens. Ideally, multiple core sections are obtained and evaluated for adequacy presence of glomeruli intraoperatively.
Multiple immunofluorescence stains are performed to evaluate for antibody, protein and complement deposition. Finally, ultra-structural examination is performed with electron microscopy and may reveal the presence of electron-dense deposits or other characteristic abnormalities that may suggest an etiology for the patient's renal disease.
In the majority of vertebrates, the mesonephros persists into the adult, albeit usually fused with the more advanced metanephros ; only in amniotes is the mesonephros restricted to the embryo. The kidneys of fish and amphibians are typically narrow, elongated organs, occupying a significant portion of the trunk. The collecting ducts from each cluster of nephrons usually drain into an archinephric duct , which is homologous with the vas deferens of amniotes.
However, the situation is not always so simple; in cartilaginous fish and some amphibians, there is also a shorter duct, similar to the amniote ureter, which drains the posterior metanephric parts of the kidney, and joins with the archinephric duct at the bladder or cloaca. Indeed, in many cartilaginous fish, the anterior portion of the kidney may degenerate or cease to function altogether in the adult.
In the most primitive vertebrates, the hagfish and lampreys , the kidney is unusually simple: Invertebrates may possess excretory organs that are sometimes referred to as "kidneys", but, even in Amphioxus , these are never homologous with the kidneys of vertebrates, and are more accurately referred to by other names, such as nephridia.
The kidneys of reptiles consist of a number of lobules arranged in a broadly linear pattern. Each lobule contains a single branch of the ureter in its centre, into which the collecting ducts empty.
Reptiles have relatively few nephrons compared with other amniotes of a similar size, possibly because of their lower metabolic rate. Birds have relatively large, elongated kidneys, each of which is divided into three or more distinct lobes. The lobes consists of several small, irregularly arranged, lobules, each centred on a branch of the ureter.
Birds have small glomeruli, but about twice as many nephrons as similarly sized mammals. The human kidney is fairly typical of that of mammals. Distinctive features of the mammalian kidney, in comparison with that of other vertebrates, include the presence of the renal pelvis and renal pyramids and a clearly distinguishable cortex and medulla.
The latter feature is due to the presence of elongated loops of Henle ; these are much shorter in birds, and not truly present in other vertebrates although the nephron often has a short intermediate segment between the convoluted tubules. It is only in mammals that the kidney takes on its classical "kidney" shape, although there are some exceptions, such as the multilobed reniculate kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans.
Kidneys of various animals show evidence of evolutionary adaptation and have long been studied in ecophysiology and comparative physiology. Kidney morphology, often indexed as the relative medullary thickness, is associated with habitat aridity among species of mammals  and diet e. In ancient Egypt , the kidneys, like the heart, were left inside the mummified bodies, unlike other organs which were removed. Comparing this to the biblical statements, and to drawings of human body with the heart and two kidneys portraying a set of scales for weighing justice, it seems that the Egyptian beliefs had also connected the kidneys with judgement and perhaps with moral decisions.
According to studies in modern and ancient Hebrew, various body organs in humans and animals served also an emotional or logical role, today mostly attributed to the brain and the endocrine system. The kidney is mentioned in several biblical verses in conjunction with the heart, much as the bowels were understood to be the "seat" of emotion — grief, joy and pain.
In the sacrifices offered at the biblical Tabernacle and later on at the temple in Jerusalem , the priests were instructed  to remove the kidneys and the adrenal gland covering the kidneys of the sheep, goat and cattle offerings, and to burn them on the altar, as the holy part of the "offering for God" never to be eaten.
In ancient India, according to the Ayurvedic medical systems , the kidneys were considered the beginning of the excursion channels system, the 'head' of the Mutra Srota s, receiving from all other systems, and therefore important in determining a person's health balance and temperament by the balance and mixture of the three 'Dosha's — the three health elements: Vatha or Vata — air, Pitta — bile , and Kapha — mucus. The temperament and health of a person can then be seen in the resulting color of the urine.
Modern Ayurveda practitioners, a practice which is characterized as pseudoscience,  have attempted to revive these methods in medical procedures as part of Ayurveda Urine therapy.
The Latin term renes is related to the English word "reins", a synonym for the kidneys in Shakespearean English e. Merry Wives of Windsor 3. Kidneys were once popularly regarded as the seat of the conscience and reflection,   and a number of verses in the Bible e. The kidneys, like other offal , can be cooked and eaten. Kidneys are usually grilled or sautéed, but in more complex dishes they are stewed with a sauce that will improve their flavor.
In many preparations, kidneys are combined with pieces of meat or liver, as in mixed grill. Dishes include the British steak and kidney pie , the Swedish hökarpanna pork and kidney stew , the French rognons de veau sauce moutarde veal kidneys in mustard sauce and the Spanish riñones al Jerez kidneys stewed in sherry sauce.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Kidney disambiguation. Posterior view of kidneys and their external vasculature, with adjacent posterior structures labelled.
Blood pressure regulation and Renin—angiotensin system. Acute kidney injury , Chronic kidney disease , and Kidney failure. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. Archived from the original on A Cellular And Molecular Approach.
Silva's Diagnostic Renal Pathology. Cambridge University Press; Journal of Clinical Investigation. Human Embryology and Developmental Biology 3rd ed. Annual Review of Physiology. Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry. Human Biology and Health. Retrieved 8 November Gill; Raymond Rackley Operative Urology at the Cleveland Clinic.
Polystomatidae infecting the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis ". Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. American Journal of Nephrology. Explorations in Medical Ethics p. Anatomy of the urinary system.
Arteries Renal artery segmental interlobar arcuate interlobular afferent Veins Renal vein Peritubular capillaries Vasa recta arcuate interlobar efferent. Glomerulus Bowman's capsule Glomerular basement membrane Podocyte Filtration slits Mesangium Intraglomerular mesangial cell. Macula densa Juxtaglomerular cells Mesangium Extraglomerular mesangial cell.
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List of eye diseases and disorders. Archived from the original on Accessed September 29, Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp in Spanish. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. Retrieved 3 June Crying Women Turn Men Off". American Journal of Ophthalmology. Retrieved from " https: Human physiology Eye Body fluids.
Coats the cornea , provides a hydrophilic layer and allows for even distribution of the tear film. In healthy mammalian eyes, the cornea is continually kept wet and nourished by basal tears. They lubricate the eye, and help to keep it clear of dust. Tear fluid contains water, mucin , lipids , lysozyme , lactoferrin , lipocalin , lacritin , immunoglobulins , glucose , urea , sodium , and potassium.
D There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.
N FDA has not classified the drug. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.
Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
It has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 3. Abuse may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to those in schedule 4. Alcohol X Interacts with Alcohol.
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