The Magenstrasse and Mill operation for morbid obesity. Manufacturing Packaging Marketing Foodservice Fortification. Selected Topics in the History of Biochemistry: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The term 'indicator' is sometimes used instead of 'marker' Dicko-Touré, , Church and Pond, ; Lambourne et al, Studies have found that the lignans in flaxseed may help protect against radiation. Whole-body bone mineral WB Min left axis and calcium right axis as a function of age as determined by total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry Note:
Two bidimensional tables were built to calculate the indexes and were delimited according to anthropometric averages of our population. These tables will facilitate the obtaining of indexes by the clinicians and, at the same time, the nutritional status diagnosis of pregnant women and their newborn. Nutritional assessment, anthropometric indexes. En medicina materno fetal la valoración nutricional es un criterio ampliamente utilizado con fines pronósticos y de manejo clínico , la desnutrición materna tradicionalmente ha sido considerada un factor de riesgo para el normal desarrollo del feto.
El sobrepeso y la obesidad materna representan mayor riesgo perinatal, aumentando el riesgo en términos de macrosomia y partos distócicos. En , Hadlock y cols 14 proponen una evaluación de la relación entre el perímetro abdominal como indicador de peso fetal y la longitud del fémur como indicador de la longitud fetal.
Por otro lado para la valoración neonatal del crecimiento intrauterino, tradicionalmente se ha utilizado el criterio de Battaglia y Lubchenco 2, 21 , relacionando el peso del recién nacido RN en función de la edad gestacional. El IPN se multiplica por para obtener unidades de uso habitual, un entero y dos decimales. Con valores de referencia para la semana gestacional 10 a la Con valores de referencia para la semana 24 a la Factores de riesgo de retardo de crecimiento intrauterino y prematurez en dos municipios de Buenos Aires Argentina.
Rev Chil Pediatr ; A practical classification of newborn infants by weight and gestational age. Atalah E, Castro R. Obesidad materna y riesgo reproductivo Rev Méd Chile ; Curva de crecimiento intrauterino para el diagnóstico apropiado del retardo de crecimiento intrauterino. Rev Med Chil ; Donoso E, Espinoza R. Efecto de algunas variables nutricionales maternas sobre el peso del recién nacido de término. Rev Latin Perinatol ;8: An animal is dosed with 50 g of chromic oxide per day to determine its daily faecal output.
The concentration proportion of marker in the dry-faeces sample is 5. The dry-matter weight of faeces excreted per day is g and 5. The proportion of the marker in the diet is 3. Calculate the DM intake of the animal. These can then be related to such variables as seasonal rainfall, stocking rate, management practices or plant composition to isolate its main determinants.
Summary The normal procedures to estimate DM digestibility and intake are to: This requires the further estimation of faecal output either by total faecal collection or dosing with known quantities of, for instance, chromic oxide. When facilities for laboratory analysis are not available or are inadequate, intake should be calculated on the basis of digestibility.
Simple methods to estimate digestibility are given in the text which follows. Composition of consumed feed There are various methods used to determine what the animal is eating. Those discussed here are: The botanical composition of feed consumed by an animal can be determined by using a surgical fistula inserted into an animal's oesophagus.
The food eaten passes into a collection bag attached to the neck, and samples are taken directly from the bag after allowing the animals to graze for not more than two hours before re-inserting the fistula plug. The oesophageal fistula method provides an accurate indication of the botanical composition of the feed consumed. An illustration of this type of approach is given by McLean et al However, because of salivary contamination of the samples, accurate direct estimates of the chemical composition of feed eaten are restricted to nitrogen, neutral detergent solubles, calcium, magnesium, sulphur and copper Little, ; Dietary phosphorus concentrations can be estimated accurately only from oesophageal extrusa labelled with radioactive P Little et al, It also tends to be time-consuming and costly, and farmers are unlikely to cooperate when their own stock is involved.
Nevertheless, ILCA research workers have used the method in the field. In Kenya, for instance, oesophageal fistulae were fitted to cows which had been purchased from Maasai pastoralists and herded with farmers herds during three seasons in several locations Semenye, a, b.
The data obtained on feed composition were then complemented by studies on grazing behaviour of the type discussed below. Material collected with the fistula method can be used in the determination of digestibility by in vitro estimation procedures see page This method is applicable to both cattle and smallstock and allows direct sampling of the contents of the rumen by means of a cannula surgically inserted into the rumen.
It involves physically emptying the contents of the rumen by hand before the animal goes to graze and then taking samples from the freshly ingested material two to three hours after the animal started grazing. It is therefore more likely to be applicable to on-farmlon-range experiments described in Section 2.
Direct observation of grazing habits. The content of food consumed by grazing animals can be guesstimated by following selected animals in a herd or flock at distances which are close enough to observe what is being eaten. Each selected animal is observed at regular intervals. Two field examples demonstrate the principles. De Leeuw and Chara used the technique to compare goat and sheep browse preferences in mixed Maasai flocks in Kenya.
Observations were carried out during the dry season with randomly selected animals being followed for periods of one to two hours by one or two observers who were familiar with the local flora.
Because the animals were familiar with humans, observations could be made at distances of m. The aim was to obtain an equal number of 'hits' for sheep and goat - a 'hit' occurring each time a particular plant species was eaten. Hits per plant species were then summed and compared with the total number to determine the proportion of each plant eaten.
These figures were then used to derive an index of preference or selection. Between and hits were collected for both sheep and goats in each sample flock. Nyerges observed the grazing habits of sheep, by following each for a period of 20 minutes measured by stop watch.
Animals were followed at distances of m and the shrub and ground species consumed including ground litter during the observation period were recorded. Direct observation can also be applied to other studies of animal grazing behaviour, e. These variables can then be related to such parameters as intake, digestibility, stocking rate and distance to water, to isolate the more important determinants of grazing behaviour Lambourne et al, , pp.
A modification of the direct-observation method was used by Dicko-Touré in Mali to determine the composition of feed consumed. Selected animals were followed for a period of one minute, and distance walked as well as the number of mouthful taken during this period were recorded. A sample of forage was then collected by hand from the area grazed during the one-minute observation period. The size of the sample taken was in proportion to the observed number of mouthfuls one hand-grab for every five mouthful.
Similar measurements were made for each selected animal every 45 minutes throughout the day in order to obtain comprehensive data on feeding habits and feed composition. Lambourne et al argued that, for most purposes, such rapid-survey techniques provide sufficient detail on diet composition. They are low-cost, require minimal supervision and can be completed in a relatively short time. Observers should, preferably, have a good knowledge of local flora, but it is more important for them to be observant.
If hand samples are collected to mimic grazing habits, these can be analysed at a later stage by someone who is thoroughly familiar with the flora. Data on diet composition can be complemented by opinions obtained from herdsmen in the area. Their knowledge about species differences in terms of selectivity and palatability is often very precise.
Pasture analysis before and after grazing. The 'before' and 'after' method involves the demarcation of quadrats in a paddock before and after animals are released into an area for grazing Figure 4. Adjacent to each fenced quadrat is an equally sized area, with similar vegetation characteristics. The biomass and vegetation composition of the two 'paired' areas are measured using one of the techniques described in Module 6 and animals are then released into the area to graze t'Mannetje, Schematic representation of the pasture analysis method.
After a prescribed period e. The method will give reasonable estimates provided that the two areas are not highly variable in terms of species composition. When vegetation is highly variable, the number of paired samples required must be increased, making measurement more time-consuming. Faecal samples have been used for microscopic analysis of the plant part they contain, to provide an indication of the vegetation consumed by an animal Stewart, However, as an indicator of dietary composition such samples tend to be unreliable since the indigestible portion of the diet may bear little relationship to the portion actually consumed.
The faeces may, for instance, contain high proportions of woody ligneous material consumed during browsing. This does not necessarily mean that the diet also contains similar proportions of this component. Feed digestibility The methods used to assess digestibility are based on: Of these, only the first three are relevant to the diagnostic phase of livestock systems research.
The in vivo method is more applicable to on-station research and involves intensive laboratory work and careful supervision. The use of markers.
When it is impossible or inconvenient to measure total feed intake or to collect total faeces, markers can be used to determine intake see pages as well as digestibility. The formula used to calculate apparent digestibility 16 is: Calculate the apparent digestibility of the feed. To obtain data for the analysis based on markers, follow this procedure: There are two obvious sources of error in such a methodology.
First, lignin may be partly digestible and is thus not always a reliable indicator marker. Second, the feed samples taken will often be not truly representative of actual intake, particularly when pasture is highly variable, and where the choice of samples is entirely dependent on the enumerator judgement. There are various methods available to sample faecal output in the field, including: This method is practical in a range context.
Schneider and Flatt, However, Dicko-Touré, , p. She argued that the costs of using indicators to estimate faecal output would, in fact, have been more expensive since this method would have involved sending samples to another country at a cost that is at least 10 times higher than the cost actually incurred by using the bag-collection method.
Thus, the methods adopted in any diagnostic study to sample faecal output should be tailored to the particular circumstances of the study, bearing in mind the financial and manpower resources of the research team. The use of faecal indices. The methods using faecal indices to estimate digestibility are based on established regression relationships between faecal indices and the digestibility of dry or organic matter Van Soest, The general model for these relationships is: The two variables merely happen to go together i.
The estimation of digestibility via faecal indices involves the following steps: The main advantages of this method are that it is relatively low-cost and results can be obtained fairly quickly. Its chief disadvantage is that it is site-specific, and the derived parameters and relations In vitro analysis of consumed feed. When digestibility is analysed by in vitro methods, samples of feed ingested are subjected to artificial tests which simulate digestibility under controlled conditions.
The more commonly applied methods involve the use of rumen fluids, chemical fermenters and nylon bags see Church and Pond, Rumen fluids are extracted from rumen-fistulated animals and used in combination with buffers to simulate the action of saliva.
The Tilley-Terry method, which is widely used, involves an additional stage in which the feed is further digested with acid pepsin for another 48 hours. The residual represents the indigestible portion of the feed. Chemical fermenters added to the feed have been used to predict digestibility. The method is also used to study rumen function and the metabolism of certain compounds, e.
The advantage of the two methods is that the analysis is not expensive if laboratory facilities are available and that it can be performed fairly quickly. The methods can also be used to assess the digestibility of grab samples of grass or of cut samples of stover and straws taken after crop harvesting. These are inserted into the rumen of test animals and removed after a prescribed period.
The loss of material from the bag as a result of fermentation is then calculated. The method is more applicable to on-station research, but it can be used together with the rumen cannula method to determine intake. Nutritive value of feed This part of the module focuses on the methods and techniques used in estimating the supply of different nutrients to animals in particular situations or systems, in relation to their need for these nutrients.
It starts with a general section on estimating the main feed components. It then goes straight to fibre analysis because of the difficulties involved in estimating feed values in very fibrous diets.
Finally, it looks at some of the techniques in use for the physical sampling, from stands of different kinds of feed, for laboratory analysis. Methods to estimate feed components The feed value of a source of feed can be assessed on the basis of its energy value, crude protein content and mineral content, using methods specifically designed to estimate these components of feed. The energy yield of a source of feed such as natural pasture can be estimated from its dry-matter weight per unit area.
Module 6 discusses the various methods used to estimate biomass or dry-matter weight under rangeland conditions. Many of these methods rely on the use of predictive equations based on the relationship between biomass and the vegetation characteristics e. Samples can be taken to establish similar predictive relationships for the estimation of dry-matter weight of crop residues.
Powell , for instance, used grain yield to predict total stover dry-matter weight and stalk and leaf dry-matter weights for millet and sorghum. The relationships, which were based on data obtained from randomly chosen sites in Kaduna State, Nigeria, were highly significant Figure 5. Van Raay and de Leeuw adopted a similar procedure to determine the DM weight of crop residues in Katsina, Nigeria. They established predictive relationships on the basis of stalk and stand density, plant height and plant edibility subjectively estimated.
Relationships between sorghum and millet grain yields and stover dry-matter DM yields. Having obtained an estimate of dry-matter yield, an estimate of digestibility is then required before the desired approximation of the energy yield can be calculated. The fibrous portions of a feed must, therefore, be considered before more accurate estimates of nutritive value can be made.
Feeds with a high biomass per unit area are often low in energy since they also contain a high proportion of indigestible fibrous matter. Methods of fibre analysis have been devised to separate those portions of fibre which can be utilised by the ruminant from those which are essentially indigestible. Fibre analysis is thus particularly important in the assessment of the nutritive value of these feeds. For the purposes of illustration, however, the following average relationships can be used: Let us calculate the feed energy requirements of a kg liveweight ox for maintenance, foraging and production, and compare these with the availability of energy to that animal from its feed supply.
The maintenance fasting metabolism requirement is determined as follows: Km tends to lie in the range 0. We can call this 'foraging'.
The energy requirement for foraging Ef are given by the formula: To gain weight, an animal needs between 12 and 27 MJ of ME per kg liveweight, depending on the percentage that fat constitutes in the meat accumulated. We can now compare supply and requirements of feed energy per ox for the 90 days of the dry season as follows: The standard laboratory method for the estimation of crude protein is the Kjeldahl method which is described in most texts on animal nutrition e.
McDonald et al, ; Church and Pond, The analysis is used to determine the crude protein content of a sample of grass or stover, and the results can then be used to establish predictive regression equations similar to those illustrated in Figure 5.
When estimating the crude protein content of browse plants and crop residues, it should be borne in mind that the presence of certain phenolics tannins in these feeds can affect the availability of nitrogen to the ruminant. This is particularly true of feeds high in insoluble polyphenolics, for which the calculated crude protein content may overestimate the amount of nitrogen which can actually be synthesised into protein e.
Woodward and Reed, Analysis should only be attempted if mineral deficiencies are clearly evident. Even then, if other nutrients such as energy or crude protein are more limiting as is likely to be the case on African rangelands , the mineral constraint should be dealt with only after the primary deficiencies have been rectified Little, The methods used by ILCA researchers to diagnose the more common deficiencies involve blood, bone, liver, milk and faecal samples and are discussed in general terms below.
All the methods outlined rely on adequate laboratory facilities. For a more detailed account of symptoms of mineral deficiency and the role of minerals in animal nutrition, the user is referred to basic nutrition texts, e. Cullison and Church and Pond Whole blood, blood serum and blood plasma samples have been used to diagnose mineral deficiencies particularly phosphorous and magnesium in livestock.
Values significantly below 'normal' concentrations or ranges indicate the nutritional status of an animal with respect to a particular mineral, but the evidence is not always conclusive McDowell et al, Precautions must, for instance, be taken when samples are taken in less than optimum conditions since exercise, stress, temperature and other factors can alter mineral concentrations. Such factors are often difficult to control in African conditions Mtimuni, and have resulted in high concentrations of phosphorous in serum when the concentration in forages consumed was, in fact, extremely low.
Little et al described a method for obtaining accurate estimates of blood inorganic P concentrations, but the difficulties of interpretation of such data were noted by Gartner et al Basically, only low blood inorganic P values have any diagnostic value.
Because of the problems just described, tests using bone samples have been developed to test for phosphorus deficiency in livestock. Samples of rib bone can be obtained by simple surgery. For FSR diagnostic work, simple measurements that can be made on certain long bones at slaughter can provide results which are generally more reliable than those obtained from blood samples.
These methods have been described by Little Liver samples have been used to diagnose for copper, cobalt and vitamin A deficiencies in African livestock Tartour, ; van Niekerk, ILCA has used samples of milk to diagnose mineral deficiencies in cattle in Ethiopia. However, since milk composition is influenced by such factors as cow age, stage of lactation and genetic potential, milk sampling tends to be unreliable. The 'let-down' problem associated with zebu cattle Module 5 also means that it is cliff cut to obtain representative samples in field studies.
Large variations in butterfat content between successive milkings of the same cow reflect this problem Lambourne et al, However, milk samples are very useful in the diagnosis of iodine deficiency Committee on Mineral Nutrition, Apart from their use in digestibility and intake studies, faecal samples have been used to diagnose for phosphorus and sodium deficiencies Little, Sodium problems are diagnosed more accurately, but with more difficulty, from saliva samples.
However, the analysis of mineral deficiencies is probably best done by feed analysis at the diagnostic phase of farming systems research. The methods described above are more applicable to specific problems requiring more sensitive analysis Little, A knowledge of the symptoms involved will provide further confirmatory evidence e.
The opinions of traditional herders will also be useful in identifying mineral deficiencies particularly the need for salt , as will be the movement of stock over large distances to natural sources of minerals. Fibre analysis The crude-fibre Weende method is described in most texts on animal nutrition. The method has been widely used to determine the fibre content of feed, but it has two serious shortcomings, particularly with respect to highly fibrous feeds such as crop residues, straws etc.
Ruminants can, however, utilise some cellulose and hemicelluose though lignin is essentially indigestible. The digestibility of a feed therefore tends to be underestimated. As a result, a portion of these components is included in the nitrogen-tree extract sugars and starches and is, therefore, assumed to be highly digestible.
The digestibility of a feed therefore tends to be overestimated. Because of these shortcomings, Van Soest devised a method which separates feed dry matter into two fractions - one of high or uniform digestibility and the other of low or non-uniform digestibility.
No citations found yet 0. Create a SciFeed alert for new publications With following keywords older adults. By following authors Vincenzo Malafarina. One email with all search results. One email for each search. Nutrients , 10 5 , ; https: Dietician Researcher; Barcelona, Spain, sonia. This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing.
Abstract Malnutrition is very prevalent in geriatric patients with hip fracture. Nevertheless, its importance is not fully recognized. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of malnutrition and of nutritional treatment upon outcomes and mortality in older people with hip fracture.