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The active vitamin D metabolite calcitriol mediates its biological effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor VDR , which is principally located in the nuclei of target cells. Boyle DR, Chagnon M. Sepsis a risk of parenteral nutrition. In fact, they found out that protein is essential in helping the body repair, and vital to preventing fatty buildup and damage to the liver. Cancer treatments predisposing to late renal injury and hypertension include the following: Hillier S, et al. Survivors of optic pathway glioma and craniopharyngioma are also at risk of visual complications, resulting in part from tumor proximity to the optic nerve.
Summary of Fish Oil
The degree to which inorganic fluoride can induce skeletal changes varies considerably between the various animal species. Franke cites data which show that cattle are the most sensitive to skeletal fluorosis, followed by sheep, horses, pigs, rabbits, rats, guinea pigs and poultry. The sensitivity of cattle is attributed to their negative calcium balance, which is particularly noticeable in lactating cattle after calving; another contributing factor is the length of time which the bolus remains in the stomach of ruminants.
The calcium found in cow's milk is supplied from both dietary and bone-resorption sources in approximately equal proportions Comar et al. Inorganic fluoride uptake occurs in bone tissue primarily through the replacement of hydroxyl groups of calcium hydroxyapatite, the major mineral phase in bone, causing the incorporation of the inorganic fluoride as calcium fluorapatite.
A histological study of humerus bones from cattle exposed to atmospheric inorganic fluorides from a group of phosphate fertilizer factories in southern Brazil showed very little formation of primary spongiosa with reduced numbers and sizes of osteoblasts Riet-Correa at al. Osteons were irregular in shape, size, and distribution in compact mandibular bone. Enlarged Haversian canals, irregular distribution of osteocytes, variation in calcium content, resorption cavities, and increased and irregular interstitial lamellae accompanied symptoms of fluorosis.
As a result of excessive exposure to inorganic fluoride, capillaries invade the cartilage unevenly and with difficulty so that the border becomes dented, resulting in isolated islands of cartilage Obel, Bone marrow becomes fibrous and poor in cells, and hyperactivity of the parathyroid may also occur as a result of decreased systemic calcium.
Dental fluorosis is generally characterized by the presence of various enamel defects and lesions such as mottling, hypoplasia, hypocalcification and increased wear. Mottled and defective enamel is believed to be solely an indication of inorganic fluoride exposure during the development of the teeth, as effects are not apparent in teeth which have already erupted prior to exposure Obel, Specifically in cattle dental fluorosis results in chalky-white, yellow or brown discolourations, hypoplasia, pitting and loss of enamel and hyperplasia of the cement.
This is sometimes accompanied by gingival hyperplasia Riet-Correa at al. Ockerse observed severe tooth lesions in cattle on a farm where the drinking water contained Dental examination revealed that the cattle suffered severe dental fluorosis with the teeth having mottled, eroded, and irregular permanent incisors and black molars with irregular surfaces. This case indicates that chronic exposure to inorganic fluoride can be missed if only serum levels are used as an indicator of exposure.
This effect preceded the development of clinical symptoms of fluorosis, which therefore suggests that harmful effects on reproduction cannot be considered a secondary effect of fluorosis Life Systems Inc. Table 1 shows the phases of skeletal fluorosis mentioned in the article below. None of them are likely to be recognised by North American doctors because they are not trained to diagnose fluorosis.
The preliminary stages can easily be misdiagnosed for rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis or other similar diseases.
It is also noteworthy to mention that this is not the first "error" made by Harold C Hodge see poison. Was it really two honest mistakes or did it reflect a hidden agenda? What is the minimum intake of fluoride F which causes skeletal fluorosis, and how long is it before the onset of this disease? Kaj Roholm's study of industrial fluorosis showed that phases of skeletal fluorosis could occur, with an F intake of 0.
Unfortunately, Hodge had made an incredible blunder, because he had not corrected for pounds lbs. While it provides a way to compare malnutrition within and between populations, the classification has been criticized for being "arbitrary" and for not considering overweight as a form of malnutrition. Also, height alone may not be the best indicator of malnutrition; children who are born prematurely may be considered short for their age even if they have good nutrition.
John Conrad Waterlow established a new classification for malnutrition. These classifications of malnutrition are commonly used with some modifications by WHO. Malnutrition increases the risk of infection and infectious disease, and moderate malnutrition weakens every part of the immune system. Lower energy and impaired function of the brain also represent the downward spiral of malnutrition as victims are less able to perform the tasks they need to in order to acquire food, earn an income, or gain an education.
Vitamin-deficiency-related diseases such as scurvy and rickets. Hypoglycemia low blood sugar can result from a child not eating for 4 to 6 hours. Hypoglycemia should be considered if there is lethargy, limpness, convulsion, or loss of consciousness.
If blood sugar can be measured immediately and quickly, perform a finger or heel stick. In those with malnutrition some of the signs of dehydration differ. Protein-calorie malnutrition can cause cognitive impairments. For humans, "critical period varies from the final third of gestation to the first 2 years of life".
Folate deficiency has been linked to neural tube defects. Malnutrition in the form of iodine deficiency is "the most common preventable cause of mental impairment worldwide.
The most visible and severe effects — disabling goiters, cretinism and dwarfism — affect a tiny minority, usually in mountain villages. But 16 percent of the world's people have at least mild goiter, a swollen thyroid gland in the neck. Major causes of malnutrition include poverty and food prices, dietary practices and agricultural productivity, with many individual cases being a mixture of several factors.
Clinical malnutrition , such as cachexia , is a major burden also in developed countries. Various scales of analysis also have to be considered in order to determine the sociopolitical causes of malnutrition. For example, the population of a community that is within poor governments, may be at risk if the area lacks health-related services, but on a smaller scale certain households or individuals may be at an even higher risk due to differences in income levels, access to land, or levels of education.
People may become malnourished due to abnormal nutrient loss due to diarrhea or chronic illness affecting the small bowel. A lack of adequate breastfeeding leads to malnutrition in infants and children, associated with the deaths of an estimated one million children annually.
Illegal advertising of breast milk substitutes contributed to malnutrition and continued three decades after its prohibition under the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes. Maternal malnutrition can also factor into the poor health or death of a baby. Over , neonatal death have occurred because of deficient growth of the fetus in the mother's womb. Deriving too much of one's diet from a single source, such as eating almost exclusively corn or rice, can cause malnutrition.
This may either be from a lack of education about proper nutrition, or from only having access to a single food source. It is not just the total amount of calories that matters but specific nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin A deficiency , iron deficiency or zinc deficiency can also increase risk of death.
Overnutrition caused by overeating is also a form of malnutrition. In the United States, more than half of all adults are now overweight — a condition that, like hunger, increases susceptibility to disease and disability, reduces worker productivity, and lowers life expectancy. Many parts of the world have access to a surplus of non-nutritious food, in addition to increased sedentary lifestyles.
Yale psychologist Kelly Brownell calls this a " toxic food environment " where fat and sugar laden foods have taken precedence over healthy nutritious foods.
The issue in these developed countries is choosing the right kind of food. More fast food is consumed per capita in the United States than in any other country. The reason for this mass consumption of fast food is its affordability and accessibility. Often fast food, low in cost and nutrition, is high in calories and heavily promoted. When these eating habits are combined with increasingly urbanized, automated, and more sedentary lifestyles, it becomes clear why weight gain is difficult to avoid.
Not only does obesity occur in developed countries, problems are also occurring in developing countries in areas where income is on the rise. In China, consumption of high-fat foods has increased while consumption of rice and other goods has decreased. In Bangladesh, poor socioeconomic position was associated with chronic malnutrition since it inhibits purchase of nutritious foods such as milk, meat, poultry, and fruits.
He states that malnutrition and famine were more related to problems of food distribution and purchasing power. It is argued that commodity speculators are increasing the cost of food. As the real estate bubble in the United States was collapsing, it is said that trillions of dollars moved to invest in food and primary commodities, causing the — food price crisis.
The use of biofuels as a replacement for traditional fuels raises the price of food. Local food shortages can be caused by a lack of arable land, adverse weather, lower farming skills such as crop rotation , or by a lack of technology or resources needed for the higher yields found in modern agriculture , such as fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, machinery and storage facilities.
As a result of widespread poverty, farmers cannot afford or governments cannot provide the resources necessary to improve local yields. The World Bank and some wealthy donor countries also press nations that depend on aid to cut or eliminate subsidized agricultural inputs such as fertilizer, in the name of free market policies even as the United States and Europe extensively subsidized their own farmers.
There are a number of potential disruptions to global food supply that could cause widespread malnutrition. Global warming is of importance to food security, with 95 percent of all malnourished peoples living in the relatively stable climate region of the sub-tropics and tropics. According to the latest IPCC reports, temperature increases in these regions are "very likely.
For example, the — central Asian drought brought about an 80 percent livestock loss and 50 percent reduction in wheat and barley crops in Iran. An increase in extreme weather such as drought in regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa would have even greater consequences in terms of malnutrition. Even without an increase of extreme weather events, a simple increase in temperature reduces the productivity of many crop species, also decreasing food security in these regions.
Colony collapse disorder is a phenomenon where bees die in large numbers. The effort to bring modern agricultural techniques found in the West, such as nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, to Asia, called the Green Revolution , resulted in decreases in malnutrition similar to those seen earlier in Western nations.
This was possible because of existing infrastructure and institutions that are in short supply in Africa, such as a system of roads or public seed companies that made seeds available. However, after the government changed policy and subsidies for fertilizer and seed were introduced against World Bank strictures, farmers produced record-breaking corn harvests as production leaped to 3.
New technology in agricultural production also has great potential to combat undernutrition. The World Bank itself claims to be part of the solution to malnutrition, asserting that the best way for countries to succeed in breaking the cycle of poverty and malnutrition is to build export-led economies that will give them the financial means to buy foodstuffs on the world market.
There is a growing realization among aid groups that giving cash or cash vouchers instead of food is a cheaper, faster, and more efficient way to deliver help to the hungry, particularly in areas where food is available but unaffordable. However, for people in a drought living a long way from and with limited access to markets, delivering food may be the most appropriate way to help.
By the time it arrives in the country and gets to people, many will have died. Ethiopia has been pioneering a program that has now become part of the World Bank's prescribed method for coping with a food crisis and had been seen by aid organizations as a model of how to best help hungry nations.
Through the country's main food assistance program, the Productive Safety Net Program, Ethiopia has been giving rural residents who are chronically short of food, a chance to work for food or cash.
Foreign aid organizations like the World Food Program were then able to buy food locally from surplus areas to distribute in areas with a shortage of food. City residents separate organic waste from their garbage, bag it, and then exchange it for fresh fruit and vegetables from local farmers. As a result, the country's waste is reduced and the urban poor get a steady supply of nutritious food.
Restricting population size is a proposed solution. Thomas Malthus argued that population growth could be controlled by natural disasters and voluntary limits through "moral restraint. Instead, these theorists point to unequal distribution of resources and under- or unutilized arable land as the cause for malnutrition problems. This applies not only to organizing rationing and control, but also to undertaking work programmes and other methods of increasing purchasing power for those hit by shifts in exchange entitlements in a general inflationary situation.
One suggested policy framework to resolve access issues is termed food sovereignty —the right of peoples to define their own food, agriculture, livestock, and fisheries systems, in contrast to having food largely subjected to international market forces. Food First is one of the primary think tanks working to build support for food sovereignty.
Neoliberals advocate for an increasing role of the free market. Another possible long term solution would be to increase access to health facilities to rural parts of the world. These facilities could monitor undernourished children, act as supplemental food distribution centers, and provide education on dietary needs. These types of facilities have already proven very successful in countries such as Peru and Ghana. As of is estimated that about , deaths of children less than five years old could be prevented globally per year through more widespread breastfeeding.
The medical community recommends exclusively breastfeeding infants for 6 months, with nutritional whole food supplementation and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or older for overall optimal health outcomes.
Breastfeeding is noted as one of the most cost effective medical interventions for providing beneficial child health. Food security and global malnutrition has long been a topic of international concern, with one of the first official global documents addressing it being the Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR.
Within this document it stated that access to food was part of an adequate right to a standard of living. The Right to food is a human right for people to feed themselves in dignity, be free from hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition. However, after the International Covenant the global concern for the access to sufficient food only became more present, leading to the first ever World Food Conference that was held in in Rome, Italy. Ultimately this document outline and provided guidance as to how the international community as one could work towards fighting and solving the growing global issue of malnutrition and hunger.
Adoption of the right to food was included in the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the area of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights , this document was adopted by many countries in the Americas, the purpose of the document is, "to consolidate in this hemisphere, within the framework of democratic institutions, a system of personal liberty and social justice based on respect for the essential rights of man.
The next document in the timeline of global inititaves for malnutrition was the Rome Declaration on World Food Security , organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization. This document reaffirmed the right to have access to safe and nutritous food by everyone, also considering that everyone gets sufficient food, and set the goals for all nations to improve their commitment to food security by halfing their amount of undernourished people by One of the most recent and powerful global policies to reduce hunger and poverty are the Sustainable Development Goals.
In particular Goal 2: Zero hunger sets globally agreed targets to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. In April , the Food Assistance Convention was signed, the world's first legally binding international agreement on food aid.
The May Copenhagen Consensus recommended that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending.
They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS. The EndingHunger campaign is an online communication campaign aimed at raising awareness of the hunger problem. It has many worked through viral videos depicting celebrities voicing their anger about the large number of hungry people in the world.
Another initiative focused on improving the hunger situation by improving nutrition is the Scaling up Nutrition movement SUN.
Started in this movement of people from governments, civil society, the United Nations, donors, businesses and researchers, publishes a yearly progress report on the changes in their 55 partner countries. In response to child malnutrition, the Bangladeshi government recommends ten steps for treating severe malnutrition.
They are to prevent or treat dehydration , low blood sugar , low body temperature , infection, correct electrolyte imbalances and micronutrient deficiencies, start feeding cautiously, achieve catch-up growth, provide psychological support, and prepare for discharge and follow-up after recovery.
Among those who are hospitalized, nutritional support improves protein, calorie intake and weight. The evidence for benefit of supplementary feeding is poor.
Specially formulated foods do however appear useful in those from the developing world with moderate acute malnutrition. In those who are severely malnourished, feeding too much too quickly can result in refeeding syndrome. Manufacturers are trying to fortify everyday foods with micronutrients that can be sold to consumers such as wheat flour for Beladi bread in Egypt or fish sauce in Vietnam and the iodization of salt. For example, flour has been fortified with iron, zinc, folic acid and other B vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B Treating malnutrition, mostly through fortifying foods with micronutrients vitamins and minerals , improves lives at a lower cost and shorter time than other forms of aid , according to the World Bank.
In those with diarrhea, once an initial four-hour rehydration period is completed, zinc supplementation is recommended. Daily zinc increases the chances of reducing the severity and duration of the diarrhea, and continuing with daily zinc for ten to fourteen days makes diarrhea less likely recur in the next two to three months. In addition, malnourished children need both potassium and magnesium. For a malnourished child with diarrhea from any cause, this should include foods rich in potassium such as bananas, green coconut water, and unsweetened fresh fruit juice.
The World Health Organization WHO recommends rehydrating a severely undernourished child who has diarrhea relatively slowly. The preferred method is with fluids by mouth using a drink called oral rehydration solution ORS. The oral rehydration solution is both slightly sweet and slightly salty and the one recommended in those with severe undernutrition should have half the usual sodium and greater potassium.
Fluids by nasogastric tube may be use in those who do not drink. Intravenous fluids are recommended only in those who have significant dehydration due to their potential complications. These complications include congestive heart failure. This switch from type of fluid to amount of fluid was crucial in order to prevent dehydration from diarrhea. Breast feeding and eating should resume as soon as possible.
To prevent dehydration readily available fluids, preferably with a modest amount of sugars and salt such as vegetable broth or salted rice water, may be used. The drinking of additional clean water is also recommended. Once dehydration develops oral rehydration solutions are preferred. As much of these drinks as the person wants can be given, unless there are signs of swelling. If vomiting occurs, fluids can be paused for 5—10 minutes and then restarting more slowly.
Vomiting rarely prevents rehydration as fluid are still absorbed and the vomiting rarely last long. For babies a dropper or syringe without the needle can be used to put small amounts of fluid into the mouth; for children under 2, a teaspoon every one to two minutes; and for older children and adults, frequent sips directly from a cup. After the first two hours of rehydration it is recommended that to alternate between rehydration and food. Malnourished children have an excess of body sodium.
Hypoglycemia , whether known or suspected, can be treated with a mixture of sugar and water. If the child is conscious, the initial dose of sugar and water can be given by mouth.
If seizures occur after despite glucose, rectal diazepam is recommended. Blood sugar levels should be re-checked on two hour intervals. To prevent or treat this, the child can be kept warm with covering including of the head or by direct skin-to-skin contact with the mother or father and then covering both parent and child.
Prolonged bathing or prolonged medical exams should be avoided. Warming methods are usually most important at night. The figures provided in this section on epidemiology all refer to undernutrition even if the term malnutrition is used which, by definition, could also apply to too much nutrition. There were million undernourished people in the world in Malnutrition, as of , was the cause of 1.
Mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58 percent of the total mortality in In protein-energy malnutrition resulted in , deaths down from , deaths in According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is the biggest contributor to child mortality , present in half of all cases. Poor or non-existent breastfeeding causes another 1.
Other deficiencies, such as lack of vitamin A or zinc , for example, account for 1 million. Malnutrition in the first two years is irreversible. Malnourished children grow up with worse health and lower education achievement. Their own children tend to be smaller. Malnutrition was previously [ when?
This helps their communities have more balanced diets and become more resilient to pests and drought. Finger millet is very high in calcium, rich in iron and fiber, and has a better energy content than other cereals. These characteristics make it ideal for feeding to infants and the elderly. Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed food service contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university-level institutions.
Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success. Undernutrition is an important determinant of maternal and child health, accounting for more than a third of child deaths and more than 10 percent of the total global disease burden according to studies. The World Health Organization estimates that malnutrition accounts for 54 percent of child mortality worldwide,  about 1 million children.
As underweight children are more vulnerable to almost all infectious diseases, the indirect disease burden of malnutrition is estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than the disease burden of the direct effects of malnutrition.