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The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in water. Urodynamic studies have shown that oxybutynin increases bladder size, decreases frequency of symptoms, and delays initial desire to void. Kim I have found the article to be very useful. Retrieved from " https: The mechanical process of urination is coordinated in an area of the pons known as the pontine micturition center PMC. Rapid growth in childhood can also lead to detrusor areflexia from a tethered spinal cord in patients with prior trauma or congenital malformations such as spina bifida.
What is the Neurological System?
Toxins and Child Development Endocrine Disruptor are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with endocrine or hormone systems. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders.
Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors. Specifically, endocrine disruptors may be associated with the development of learning disabilities, severe attention deficit disorder , cognitive and brain development problems; deformations of the body including limbs ; breast cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid and other cancers; sexual development problems such as feminizing of males or masculinizing effects on females, etc.
This occurs in the background of a cell when potentials are produced without the nerve stimulation of an action potential , and are due to the inherently random nature of synapses. These random potentials have similar time courses as excitatory postsynaptic potentials EPSPs and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials IPSPs , yet they lead to variable neuronal responses.
The variability is due to differences in the discharge times of action potentials. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor are chemicals that inhibit the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme family. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.
Lateral Lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain. Donepezil is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Agmatine is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the chemical arginine.
Agmatine has been shown to exert modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, notably: Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Even for people who have been very sedentary , exercise improves cognition and helps people perform better on things like planning, scheduling, multitasking and working memory. Increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus.
Reduced production of this protein has been observed in patients with chronic renal failure CRF , and this may be one of the factors underlying the degenerative processes. NMDA Receptor is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
It is activated when glutamate and glycine or D-serine bind to it, and when activated it allows positively charged ions to flow through the cell membrane. The NMDA receptor is very important for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory function. Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism. Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid.
Diploid organisms have the same loci on each of their two sets of homologous chromosomes, except that the sequences at these loci may differ between the two chromosomes in a matching pair and that a few chromosomes may be mismatched as part of a chromosomal sex-determination system.
If both alleles of a diploid organism are the same, the organism is homozygous at that locus. If they are different, the organism is heterozygous at that locus. If one allele is missing, it is hemizygous, and, if both alleles are missing, it is nullizygous. A well maintained car is reliable and hardly ever breaks down. If you put in good gas , it runs better and goes faster.
If you constantly make improvements to your car by learning about all the new technological advancements that are available, then your brain, or car, will be a high performance machine with more capabilities. Brain Memory Capacity - Spatial Intelligence "If your brain becomes Hard Wired and Cemented in Place, that means you have stopped learning, which is very dangerous in todays world, physically and mentally. There is a lot we can learn from blind people, deaf people and anyone with a disability.
We already know how to manipulate stem cells manually, but one day soon we will be able to tell the stem cells in our bodies to repair things that are causing us problems. We can already manipulate atoms into a language , so it's just a matter of time that we will discover the language of our cells, and be able to communicate with them and give them special instructions when needed.
Feed Me Seymore , but this time Feed me information and knowledge , please! The brain processes Billion bits of information a second. The average "clock speed" of neurons in the brain is a mere firings per second. But is transmission speed the same thing as processing speed? Brain processes data no faster than 60 bits per second? The brain processes around 0. The human body sends 11 million bits per second to the brain for processing, yet the conscious mind seems to be able to process only 50 bits per second?
It appears that a tremendous amount of compression is taking place if 11 million bits are being reduced to less than Note that the discrepancy between the amount of information being transmitted and the amount of information being processed is so large that any inaccuracy in the measurements is insignificant.
What Each Human Senses Processes? Brain exercises should also be designed in the same way. So the brain exercise will also be a test as well as a quick way to run a systems check. So what Brain Functions do you think you need to exercise and check?
Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.
Proteins , the components of our body that execute, control and organize basically all functions in our cells, are made out of strings of amino acids , which -- like an origami -- are folded into specific and complex three-dimensional structures according to their desired functions. However, since folding and maintaining of such structures is highly sensitive to cellular or environmental stress , proteins can potentially misfold or form clumps aggregates.
Such undesired protein waste can be toxic for cells and may even lead to cell death. Because several human neurodegenerative diseases are known to be linked to an accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates , basic science aimed to understand how cells remove cellular garbage is elementary for designing strategies for a potential prevention or cure of such disorders.
Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life. Among their many jobs, they carry oxygen, build tissue, copy DNA for the next generation, and coordinate events within and between cells.
Protein nutrient are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue, and can also serve as a fuel source. As a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition.
Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion , proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the synthesis of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death.
They are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine. There are five dispensable amino acids which humans are able to synthesize in the body. These five are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids whose synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress.
These six are arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline and tyrosine. Humans need the essential amino acids in certain ratios. Some protein sources contain amino acids in a more or less 'complete' sense. This has given rise to various ranking systems for protein sources, as described in the article. Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants: Vegetarians and vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating a variety of plant proteins.
It is commonly believed that athletes should consume a higher-than-normal protein intake to maintain optimal physical performance. Too much protein can be bad for your health, especially protein from certain foods. Our bodies make roughly 20, different kinds of proteins. Some take the shape of molecular sheets. Others are sculpted into fibers, boxes, tunnels, even scissors.
Every protein in nature is encoded by a gene. With that stretch of DNA as its guide, a cell assembles a corresponding protein from building blocks known as amino acids. Selecting from twenty or so different types, the cell builds a chain of amino acids. That chain may stretch dozens, hundreds or even thousands of units long.
Once the cell finishes, the chain folds on itself , typically in just a few hundredths of a second. Proteins fold because each amino acid has an electric charge. Parts of the protein chain are attracted to one another while other parts are repelled.
Some bonds between the amino acids will yield easily under these forces; rigid bonds will resist. Protein Atlas Serum is an amber, watery fluid, rich in proteins , that separates out when blood coagulates. Whey is the serum or watery part of milk that is separated from the curd in making cheese. Protein isoform is an ambiguous term describing either several different forms of protein coded from the same gene, or proteins with amino acid sequence and functional similarities, even when they are products of different genes.
Protein Domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and tertiary structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain. Each domain forms a compact three-dimensional structure and often can be independently stable and folded. Many proteins consist of several structural domains.
One domain may appear in a variety of different proteins. Molecular evolution uses domains as building blocks and these may be recombined in different arrangements to create proteins with different functions. Domains vary in length from between about 25 amino acids up to amino acids in length. Apolipoprotein are proteins that bind lipids oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol to form lipoproteins.
They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in water.
However, because of their detergent-like amphipathic properties, apolipoproteins and other amphipathic molecules such as phospholipids can surround the lipids, creating the lipoprotein particle that is itself water-soluble, and can thus be carried through water-based circulation i.
Apolipoproteins also serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers that regulate the metabolism of lipoproteins and their uptake in tissues. Ribonucleoprotein is a nucleoprotein that contains RNA, i. Such a combination can also be referred to as a protein-RNA complex.
These complexes play an integral part in a number of important biological functions that include DNA replication, regulating gene expression and regulating the metabolism of RNA. Transmembrane Protein is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached. Many transmembrane proteins function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the biological membrane.
They frequently undergo significant conformational changes to move a substance through the membrane. Transmembrane proteins are polytopic proteins that aggregate and precipitate in water. They require detergents or nonpolar solvents for extraction, although some of them beta-barrels can be also extracted using denaturing agents.
The other type of integral membrane protein is the integral monotopic protein that is also permanently attached to the cell membrane but does not pass through it. GDNF is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical Nerve Growth Factor.
Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. Initially identified as the genetic factor of speech disorder in KE family, its gene is the first gene discovered associated with speech and language. The gene is located on chromosome 7 7q31, at the SPCH1 locus , and is expressed in fetal and adult brain, heart, lung and gut. Ras subfamily is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs.
All Ras protein family members belong to a class of protein called small GTPase, and are involved in transmitting signals within cells cellular signal transduction. Ras is the prototypical member of the Ras superfamily of proteins, which are all related in 3D structure and regulate diverse cell behaviours. When Ras is 'switched on' by incoming signals, it subsequently switches on other proteins, which ultimately turn on genes involved in cell growth, differentiation and survival.
Mutations in ras genes can lead to the production of permanently activated Ras proteins. As a result, this can cause unintended and overactive signaling inside the cell, even in the absence of incoming signals. Because these signals result in cell growth and division, overactive Ras signaling can ultimately lead to cancer. For this reason, Ras inhibitors are being studied as a treatment for cancer and other diseases with Ras overexpression.
More than 30 percent of all human cancers — including 95 percent of pancreatic cancers and 45 percent of colorectal cancers — are driven by mutations of the RAS family of genes. Proteopathy refers to a class of diseases in which certain proteins become structurally abnormal, and thereby disrupt the function of cells, tissues and organs of the body.
Often the proteins fail to fold into their normal configuration ; in this misfolded state, the proteins can become toxic in some way a gain of toxic function or they can lose their normal function. They are abundant in neurons of the central nervous system and are less common elsewhere, but are also expressed at very low levels in CNS astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Folding Proteins Welcome to Fold it!!
Proteins are the molecular machines and building blocks of life. Modeling Software engineering - Competitive Programming Biomolecular Structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function. What Web Browsers and Proteins have in Common. Researchers discover molecular 'add-ons' that customize protein interfaces.
Researchers discovered tiny bits of molecular material -- which they named " add-ons " -- on the outer edges of the protein interface that customize what a protein can do. They chose the name because the add-ons customize the interface between proteins the way software add-ons customize a web interface with a user.
Build Blocks of Life Protein Synthesis. Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein.
The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an amino acid, for example AUG adenine-uracil-guanine is the code for methionine. Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of possible codons is 64; hence, there is some redundancy in the genetic code, with some amino acids specified by more than one codon. Protein Biosynthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Translation, the assembly of amino acids by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA mRNA , aminoacylation of transfer RNA tRNA , co-translational transport, and post-translational modification.
Protein biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps. On the role of anionic lipids in charged protein interactions with membraness Protein Domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and tertiary structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain. Domains vary in length from between about 25 amino acids up to amino acids in length.
The shortest domains, such as zinc fingers, are stabilized by metal ions or disulfide bridges. Domains often form functional units, such as the calcium-binding EF hand domain of calmodulin.
Because they are independently stable, domains can be "swapped" by genetic engineering between one protein and another to make chimeric proteins. Protein Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification of proteins in which an amino acid residue is phosphorylated by a protein kinase by the addition of a covalently bound phosphate group.
Phosphorylation alters the structural conformation of a protein, causing it to become activated, deactivated, or modifying its function. The reverse reaction of phosphorylation is called dephosphorylation, and is catalyzed by protein phosphatases. Protein kinases and phosphatases work independently and in a balance to regulate the function of proteins. The amino acids most commonly phosphorylated are serine , threonine , and tyrosine in eukaryotes, and histidine in prokaryotes, which play important and well-characterized roles in signaling pathways and metabolism.
However, many other amino acids can also be phosphorylated, including arginine , lysine , and cysteine. Protein is an essential nutrient which helps form the structural component of body tissues and is used within many biological processes, for example protein is used to make enzymes, antibodies to help us fight infection as well as DNA the building blocks to life.
Neuroscience - Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. Nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs.
In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts. Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons.
Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles , and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium.
Finally, the entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. Nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body. Computational Neuroscience is the study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system. It is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and psychology with electrical engineering, computer science, mathematics, and physics.
Computational neuroscience is distinct from psychological connectionism and from learning theories of disciplines such as machine learning , neural networks, and computational learning theory in that it emphasizes descriptions of functional and biologically realistic neurons and neural systems and their physiology and dynamics. These models capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory.
These computational models are used to frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by biological or psychological experiments. Brain and Computer Similarities Contemplative Neuroscience the study of neural mechanisms of mindfulness meditation. Central Nervous System CNS is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The central nervous system is so named because it integrates information it receives from, and coordinates and influences the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric animals. Spinal Cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system CNS. Pain Autonomic Nervous System is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal.
This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response and the freeze-and-dissociate response. Peripheral Nervous System is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system CNS. The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs , essentially serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body.
Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood—brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
In the somatic nervous system, the cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of the optic nerve cranial nerve II , along with the retina. The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon. Cranial nerve ganglia originated in the CNS. However, the remaining ten cranial nerve axons extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of the PNS. The autonomic nervous system is an involuntary control of smooth muscle and glands. The connection between CNS and organs allows the system to be in two different functional states: Parasympathetic Nervous System is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic Nervous System is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system. Sensory Nervous System Enteric Nervous System is one of the main divisions of the nervous system and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal system. It is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own independent reflex activity.
Neuroanatomy is the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of nervous systems. Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue causing neurotoxicity. Neurotoxins are an extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults that can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue.
Brain and Body youtube Blood Brain Barrier is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system CNS.
The blood—brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells, which are connected by tight junctions with an extremely high electrical resistivity of at least 0. The blood—brain barrier allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function.
On the other hand, the blood—brain barrier may prevent the entry of lipophilic , potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein. Astrocytes are necessary to create the blood—brain barrier. A small number of regions in the brain, including the circumventricular organs CVOs , do not have a blood—brain barrier.
The main functions of this barrier , namely maintenance of brain homeostasis, regulation of influx and efflux transport, and protection from harm, are determined by its specialized multicellular structure. But, if one member of the BBB fails and as a result, the barrier breaks down, there can be dramatic consequences, and neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration can occur.
Alzheimer's - Disruption in the Blood-Brain Barrier: It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations. CSF acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull. The CSF also serves a vital function in cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. The CSF occupies the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord.
It fills the ventricles of the brain, cisterns , and sulci , as well as the central canal of the spinal cord. There is also a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear via the perilymphatic duct where the perilymph is continuous with the cerebrospinal fluid. A sample of CSF can be taken via lumbar puncture.
This can reveal the intracranial pressure , as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges. Although noted by Hippocrates , it was only in the eighteenth century that Emanuel Swedenborg is credited with its rediscovery, and as late as that Harvey W. Cushing demonstrated CSF was secreted by the choroid plexus.
Lymphatic System Circumventricular Organs are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive vasculature and highly permeable capillaries unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood brain barrier BBB. The CVOs allow for the linkage between the central nervous system and peripheral blood. Additionally, they are an integral part of neuroendocrine function. The highly permeable capillaries allow the CVOs to act as an alternative route for peptides and hormones in the neural tissue to sample from and secrete to circulating blood.
CVOs also have roles in body fluid regulation , cardiovascular functions, immune responses , thirst, feeding behavior and reproductive behavior. CVOs can be classified as either sensory or secretory organs serving homeostatic functions and body water balance. The sensory organs include the area postrema AP , the subfornical organ SFO and the vascular organ of lamina terminalis, all having the ability to sense signals in blood, then pass that information neurally to other brain regions.
Through their neural connections, they provide direct information to the autonomic nervous system from the systemic circulation. The secretory organs include the subcommissural organ SCO , the neural lobe of the pituitary gland, the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland, the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, the median eminence, and the pineal gland.
These organs are responsible for secreting hormones and glycoproteins into the peripheral blood using feedback from both the brain environment and external stimuli. All of the circumventricular organs, except the subcommissural organ, contain extensive vasculature and permeable capillaries which define a sensory and secretory system within the brain.
Furthermore, all CVOs contain neural tissue, enabling a neuroendocrine role. The choroid plexus, having permeable capillaries, does not contain neural tissue, but rather its primary role is to produce cerebrospinal fluid CSF , and so is typically excluded from classification as a CVO.
Endothelium is a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels , forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells.
The Brain rids itself of waste products. Other organs in the body achieve this via a system called the lymphatic system. A network of lymphatic vessels extends throughout the body in a pattern similar to that of blood vessels. Blood vessels then carry the waste products to the kidneys , which filter them out for excretion. Lymphatic vessels are also a highway for circulation of white blood cells, which fight infections, and are therefore an important part of the immune system.
Developmental Neuroscience describes the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. Neuropsychology studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors.
It is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders.
Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurologist is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system and its subdivisions, the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system ; including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle.
Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research. While neurology is a non-surgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery.
There is significant overlap between the fields of neurology and psychiatry, with the boundary between the two disciplines and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous.
Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies. Neuropathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery.
It should not be confused with neuropathy, which refers to disorders of the nerves themselves usually in the peripheral nervous system. Neurophysiology is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system. Clinical Neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated. Cognitive Neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes.
Cognitive psychology is the science that looks at how the brain's mental processes are responsible for our cognitive abilities to store and produce new memories , produce language , recognize people and objects, as well as our ability to reason and problem solve.
Cognitive Neuropsychiatry is a growing multidisciplinary field arising out of cognitive psychology and neuropsychiatry that aims to understand mental illness and psychopathology in terms of models of normal psychological function.
Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level. Therefore, their understanding is closely linked to the practice of neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience, two disciplines that broadly seek to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to perception defragmentation of concepts, memory embed, association and recall both in the thought process and behavior.
Neurotechnology is any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.
Peripheral Neuropathy is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Common causes include systemic diseases such as diabetes or leprosy , vitamin deficiency, medication e. Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the Mind and its Processes.
It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition. Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior , with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information. Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language , perception , memory , attention , reasoning , and emotion ; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics , psychology , artificial intelligence , philosophy , neuroscience , and anthropology.
The typical analysis of cognitive science span many levels of organization, from learning and decision to logic and planning ; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is that "thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures.
Cognitive Neuroscience the scientific study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as physiological psychology, cognitive psychology, and neuropsychology. Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neuropsychology, and computational modeling.
Cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind. These signals between neurons occur via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system CNS , and of the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system PNS. Trans-Synaptic Nanocolumn youtube video animation - Neuron Cell Diagram Image Neural Development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons. Neurochemical is an organic molecule, such as serotonin, dopamine , or nerve growth factor, that participates in neural activity.
The science of neurochemistry studies the functions of neurochemicals. Neural Network - Artificial Neural Network When neurons die, their debris needs to be quickly removed in order for the surrounding brain tissue to continue to function properly. Monoamine Neurotransmitter are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain -CH2-CH All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
It has been found that monoamine Neurotransmitters play an important role in the secretion and production of neurotrophin-3 by astrocytes, a chemical which maintains neuron integrity and provides neurons with trophic support. Drugs used to increase or reduce the effect of monoamine are sometimes used to treat patients with psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia.
Neurotransmitter - Neuromodulation Synapse is a structure that permits a neuron or nerve cell to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron. Communication from a neuron to any other cell type, such as to a motor cell , although such non-neuronal contacts may be referred to as junctions a historically older term. Excitatory Synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell.
Neurons form networks through which nerve impulses travel, each neuron often making numerous connections with other cells. These electrical signals may be excitatory or inhibitory, and, if the total of excitatory influences exceeds that of the inhibitory influences , the neuron will generate a new action potential at its axon hillock, thus transmitting the information to yet another cell. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential is a postsynaptic potential that makes the post synaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
This temporary depolarization of postsynaptic membrane potential, caused by the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell, is a result of opening ligand-gated ion channels. Summation in neurophysiology is the process that determines whether or not an action potential will be triggered by the combined effects of excitatory and inhibitory signals, both from multiple simultaneous inputs spatial summation , and from repeated inputs temporal summation.
Depending on the sum total of many individual inputs, summation may or may not reach the threshold voltage to trigger an action potential. Chemical Synapse are biological junctions through which neurons signal can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chemical synapses allow neurons to form circuits within the central nervous system. They are crucial to the biological computations that underlie perception and thought. They allow the nervous system to connect to and control other systems of the body.
Axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body. Myelinated axons are known as nerve fibers. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands. Axon Terminal Dendrite are the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons usually their axons via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic tree. Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials are produced by the neuron. Apical Dendrite is a dendrite that emerges from the apex of a pyramidal cell. Basal Dendrite is a dendrite that emerges from the base of a pyramidal cell that receives information from nearby neurons and passes it to the soma, or cell body.
Pyramidal Cell are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex , the hippocampus, and the amygdala. Pyramidal neurons are the primary excitation units of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract. Pyramidal neurons are also one of two cell types where the characteristic sign, Negri bodies, are found in post-mortem rabies infection.
Pyramidal neurons were first discovered and studied by Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Since then, studies on pyramidal neurons have focused on topics ranging from neuroplasticity to cognition. Soma is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus. Biologically, these channels act to set or reset the resting potential in many cells. In excitable cells, such as neurons, the delayed counterflow of potassium ions shapes the action potential.
Ion is an Atom or a Molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.
Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization. Neural Coding is a neuroscience related field concerned with characterizing the relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble.
Based on the theory that sensory and other information is represented in the brain by networks of neurons, it is thought that neurons can encode both digital and analog information. Interneuron is one of the three classifications of neurons found in the human body. Interneurons create neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system CNS. They have been found to function in reflexes, neuronal oscillations, and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain.
Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information. Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions. The interaction between interneurons allow the brain to perform complex functions such as learning, and decision-making.
Unlike the peripheral nervous system PNS , the central nervous system, including the brain, contains many interneurons. However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate in the CNS also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like acetylcholine.
Investigations into the molecular diversity of neurons is impeded by the inability to isolate cell populations born at different times for gene expression analysis. An effective means of identifying coetaneous interneurons is neuronal birthdating. This can be achieved using nucleoside analogs such as EdU , which is a thymidine analogue which is incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells. Interneuron is also called relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron.
Spinal Interneuron is an interneuron found in the spinal cord that relays signals between afferent neurons and efferent neurons. Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of sensory-motor integration.
Most interneurons are found in the grey column, a region of grey matter in the spinal cord. Spindle Neuron Myelin is a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. It is an outgrowth of a type of Glial Cell or Neuroglia, Neuroglia also called Glial Cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system brain and spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system.
They maintain homeostasis , form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons. In the central nervous system, glial cells include Oligodendrocytes , astrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia, and in the peripheral nervous systems glial cells include Schwann cells and satellite cells.
They have four main functions: They also play a role in neurotransmission and synaptic connections, and in physiological processes like breathing.
Myelin Sheath Gap are periodic gaps in the insulating myelin sheaths of myelinated axons where the axonal membrane is exposed to the extracellular space. Myelinogenesis is generally the proliferation of myelin sheaths throughout the nervous system, and specifically the progressive myelination of nerve axon fibers in the central nervous system.
This is a non-simultaneous process that occurs primarily postnatally in mammalian species, beginning in the embryo during the midst of early development and finishing after birth. Myelination Learning Myelin Basic Protein is a protein believed to be important in the process of myelination of nerves in the nervous system.
The myelin sheath is a multi-layered membrane, unique to the nervous system, that functions as an insulator to greatly increase the velocity of axonal impulse conduction. MBP maintains the correct structure of myelin, interacting with the lipids in the myelin membrane. Oligodendrocyte are a type of neuroglia. Their main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
Each oligodendrocyte forms one segment of myelin for several adjacent axons. Schwann Cell are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system PNS. Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle.
There are two types of Schwann cell, myelinating and nonmyelinating. Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. The Schwann cell promoter is present in the Downstream region of the Human Dystrophin Gene that gives shortened transcript that are again synthesized in a tissue specific manner. New kinds of brain cells revealed. Salk and UC San Diego scientists analyzed methylation patterns of neurons to find new subtypes.
Methylome is the set of nucleic acid methylation modifications in an organism's genome or in a particular cell. We describe convergent evidence from transcriptomics, morphology, and physiology for a specialized GABAergic neuron subtype in human cortex. Rosehip cells in layer 1 make homotypic gap junctions, predominantly target apical dendritic shafts of layer 3 pyramidal neurons, and inhibit backpropagating pyramidal action potentials in microdomains of the dendritic tuft.
These cells are therefore positioned for potent local control of distal dendritic computation in cortical pyramidal neurons. Claustrum is a sheet of neurons that is attached to the underside of the neocortex in the center of the brain. Contains a great deal of longitudinal connections between its neurons that could serve to synchronize the entire anterior-posterior extent of the claustrum.
Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include dopamine , serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine. Neurotransmission also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by a neuron the presynaptic neuron , and bind to and activate the receptors of another neuron the postsynaptic neuron.
Neurotransmission is essential for the process of communication between two neurons. Synaptic transmission relies on: Information is carried from one cell to the other by neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin, which activate receptors on the receiving neuron to convey excitatory or inhibitory messages. Neuropeptide are small protein-like molecules peptides used by neurons to communicate with each other. Neurotransmitter also known as chemical messengers , are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron nerve cell to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are received by receptors on the target cells. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps for conversion.
Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are unknown, but more than chemical messengers have been uniquely identified. Signal Transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases , which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases the term sensor is used. The changes elicited by ligand binding or signal sensing in a receptor give rise to a signaling cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events.
At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location.
These molecular events are the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and many other processes. Taken as such, increases in leptin levels in response to caloric intake function as an acute pro-inflammatory response mechanism to prevent excessive cellular stress induced by overeating. When high caloric intake overtaxes the ability of fat cells to grow larger or increase in number in step with caloric intake, the ensuing stress response leads to inflammation at the cellular level and ectopic fat storage, i.
The insulin increase in response to the caloric load provokes a dose-dependent rise in leptin, an effect potentiated by high cortisol levels. This response may then protect against the harmful process of ectopic fat storage, which perhaps explains the connection between chronically elevated leptin levels and ectopic fat storage in obese individuals.
Although leptin reduces appetite as a circulating signal, obese individuals generally exhibit a higher circulating concentration of leptin than normal weight individuals due to their higher percentage body fat. A number of explanations have been proposed to explain this. An important contributor to leptin resistance is changes to leptin receptor signalling, particularly in the arcuate nucleus , however, deficiency of, or major changes to, the leptin receptor itself are not thought to be a major cause.
Other explanations suggested include changes to the way leptin crosses the blood brain barrier BBB or alterations occurring during development.
Studies on leptin cerebrospinal fluid CSF levels provide evidence for the reduction in leptin crossing the BBB and reaching obesity-relevant targets, such as the hypothalamus, in obese people. Since the amount and quality of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus appears to be normal in the majority of obese humans as judged from leptin-mRNA studies ,  it is likely that the leptin resistance in these individuals is due to a post leptin-receptor deficit, similar to the post-insulin receptor defect seen in type 2 diabetes.
When leptin binds with the leptin receptor, it activates a number of pathways. Mice with a mutation in the leptin receptor gene that prevents the activation of STAT3 are obese and exhibit hyperphagia. The PI3K pathway may also be involved in leptin resistance, as has been demonstrated in mice by artificial blocking of PI3K signalling. The PI3K pathway also is activated by the insulin receptor and is therefore an important area where leptin and insulin act together as part of energy homeostasis.
The consumption of a high fructose diet from birth has been associated with a reduction in leptin levels and reduced expression of leptin receptor mRNA in rats. Long-term consumption of fructose in rats has been shown to increase levels of triglycerides and trigger leptin and insulin resistance,   however, another study found that leptin resistance only developed in the presence of both high fructose and high fat levels in the diet.
A third study found that high fructose levels reversed leptin resistance in rats given a high fat diet. The contradictory results mean that it is uncertain whether leptin resistance is caused by high levels of carbohydrates or fats, or if an increase of both, is needed. Leptin is known to interact with amylin , a hormone involved in gastric emptying and creating a feeling of fullness.
When both leptin and amylin were given to obese, leptin-resistant rats, sustained weight loss was seen. Due to its apparent ability to reverse leptin resistance, amylin has been suggested as possible therapy for obesity. It has been suggested that the main role of leptin is to act as a starvation signal when levels are low, to help maintain fat stores for survival during times of starvation, rather than a satiety signal to prevent overeating.
Leptin levels signal when an animal has enough stored energy to spend it in pursuits besides acquiring food. Dieters who lose weight, particularly those with an overabundance of fat cells, experience a drop in levels of circulating leptin.
This drop causes reversible decreases in thyroid activity, sympathetic tone, and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle, and increases in muscle efficiency and parasympathetic tone. A decline in levels of circulating leptin also changes brain activity in areas involved in the regulatory, emotional, and cognitive control of appetite that are reversed by administration of leptin.
Osteoarthritis and obesity are closely linked. Obesity is one of the most important preventable factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Originally, the relationship between osteoarthritis and obesity was considered to be exclusively biomechanically based, according to which the excess weight caused the joint to become worn down more quickly. However, today we recognise that there is also a metabolic component which explains why obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis, not only for weight-bearing joints for example, the knees , but also for joints that do not bear weight for example, the hands.
Thus, the deregulated production of adipokines and inflammatory mediators, hyperlipidaemia, and the increase of systemic oxidative stress are conditions frequently associated with obesity which can favour joint degeneration.
Furthermore, many regulation factors have been implicated in the development, maintenance and function, both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the additional link between obesity and osteoarthritis. Adipocytes interact with other cells through producing and secreting a variety of signalling molecules, including the cell signalling proteins known as adipokines.
Certain adipokines can be considered as hormones, as they regulate the functions of organs at a distance, and several of them have been specifically involved in the physiopathology of joint diseases. In particular, there is one, leptin, which has been the focus of attention for research in recent years. The circulating leptin levels are positively correlated with the Body Mass Index BMI , more specifically with fatty mass, and obese individuals have higher leptin levels in their blood circulation, compared with non-obese individuals.
In addition to the function of regulating energy homeostasis, leptin carries out a role in other physiological functions such as neuroendocrine communication, reproduction, angiogenesis and bone formation. More recently, leptin has been recognised as a cytokine factor as well as with pleiotropic actions also in the immune response and inflammation. Leptin has thus emerged as a candidate to link obesity and osteoarthritis and serves as an apparent objective as a nutritional treatment for osteoarthritis.
As in the plasma, the leptin levels in the synovial fluid are positively correlated with BMI. Leptin has been shown to be produced by chondrocytes, as well as by other tissues in the joints, including the synovial tissue, osteophytes, the meniscus and bone.
The risk of suffering osteoarthritis can be decreased with weight loss. This reduction of risk is related in part with the decrease of the load on the joint, but also in the decrease of fatty mass, the central adipose tissue and the low-level inflammation associated with obesity and systemic factors. This growing evidence points to leptin as a cartilage degradation factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, and as a potential biomarker in the progression of the disease, which suggests that leptin, as well as regulation and signalling mechanisms, can be a new and promising target in the treatment of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients.
Obese individuals are predisposed to developing osteoarthritis, not only due to the excess mechanical load, but also due to the excess expression of soluble factors, that is, leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to joint inflammation and cartilage destruction.
As such, obese individuals are in an altered state, due to a metabolic insufficiency, which requires specific nutritional treatment capable of normalising the leptin production and reducing the systematic low-level inflammation, in order to reduce the harmful impact of these systematic mediators on the joint health. There are nutritional supplements and pharmacological agents capable of directing these factors and improving both conditions.
Leptin was approved in the United States in for use in congenital leptin deficiency and generalized lipodystrophy. An analog of human leptin metreleptin trade name Myalept was first approved in Japan in , and in the United States in February In the US it is indicated as a treatment for complications of leptin deficiency, and for the diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia associated with congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy.
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Eptinezumab Erenumab Fremanezumab Galcanezumab. Corticorelin Corticotropin releasing hormone Sauvagine Urocortin Antagonists: Galanin Galanin Galmic Galnon Antagonists: Dasiglucagon Glucagon Oxyntomodulin Antagonists: Melanin concentrating hormone Antagonists: Neurotensin Neuromedin N Antagonists: Orexin A , B Antagonists: D 2 receptor agonists e. D 2 receptor antagonists e. Insulin-like factor 3 Relaxin 1 , 2 , 3 Serelaxin.
Thyrotropin alfa TSH thyrotropin.