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I wish I would have enrolled in Super Nutrition Academy years ago! If oven-drying is not possible, one of the drying methods given for fresh forage will suffice. It is generally a more reliable indicator of an animal's nutritional status than body weight since variations in the latter may merely result from changes in gut fill, body water, parturition etc. The fats group as a whole have been put at the tip of the pyramid, under the direction to eat as little as possible, which is largely problematic. Digestibility and intake data can be derived from the indigestible components of a diet, known as 'markers'. It was updated in with colorful vertical wedges replacing the horizontal sections and renamed MyPyramid. Inexpensive detergent fibre analysis using a micro system.

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Work programme of the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016-2025)

Thank you for the experience! So, I consider myself to already possess a fairly well read in the area of health, wellness and nutrition, with a decently solid foundation.

From the Eating for Energy program I appreciated the thoroughness, depth, detail, and genuine balanced viewpoints. Yuri continues this structure with the Super Nutrition Academy but goes deeper into each of the critical areas as they apply to the world of Nutrition. Bottom line is that Super Nutrition Academy is a very nicely detailed, yet condensed volume of invaluable information for anyone interested in the subject material. Yuri has clearly done his homework. He comes across as genuine and he espouses his views and opinions in an impartial manner, supported by documented research.

In fact, the original research on which the material is based is very clearly provided and this allows those of us who are really keenly interested in health and wellness to follow up with further reading of the supporting evidence on various topics, if we are so inclined. I have only completed Module 1 so far, but I am very much looking forward to the following 11 Modules based on what I have learned so far.

Specifically, I am no longer as fearful or adverse to carbohydrate consumption as I was prior to beginning the program, and I feel like my body is better off for it. A small but tangible change in my daily eating habits that I believe is having a material, positive impact on my health.

Super Nutrition Academy is an amazing experience. Every module is like a piece of a puzzle. Only if you have all the pieces you can see a clear image. Having said that, I think that one of the most interesting modules is Module 6, because it explains how our immune system works and why we get sick.

I think, once you understand that, you'll want to know what kind of diet will boost your health, and how cleansing can help as well. I am a long distance runner and as you know this is an area that invovles many sport drinks and gels and other special products that provides you "all the mineral and carbohydrates and vitamins that you need" to complete a race.

But you also get in a lot of suspicious substances, day in-day out, not only when you participate in a a race, but also when you train. So I don't like these products and I try to find natural foods that will help me accomplish my goals. Super Nutrition Academy and Eating for Energy which is an amazing book gave me valuable information about how our body works, what is the importance of whole foods and how nutrients are metabolized inside our body.

Choosing whole foods, helped my health. Choosing when to eat what, helped my athletic performance. Thank you for this. Super Nutrition Academy has been a very informative and powerful learning resource regarding health issues. There is so much information out there and I'm really glad Yuri has deciphered it all and brought it to us in an uncomplicated format, without being biased at all by any money hungry organizations that only want to sell their own products and tweak results to suit.

I was very lost in the health world due to the conflicting information and didn't know who to trust. I have had several personal health issues with me or my close family, that leading medical organizations have not been able to point me in the right direction, even making ridiculous statements that it was possibly even my fault that this was happening!

So my search began for real answers that Super Nutrition Academy has already shed some light on in Module 1! Lesson 4 has been a real eye-opener because sugar is a big part of almost everyone's life even if we don't know it! I wish I would have enrolled in Super Nutrition Academy years ago!

I hope that you will allow Super Nutrition Academy to empower you too. Cancer is such an easy thing to fix once you know what it is. Really looking forward to the next 6 modules. If it was not for Yuri and Super Nutrition Academy I would be stuck in the "cookie cutter" ways of thinking about nutrition.

I have taken college nutrition courses for years on end with little results for great health. This is a breath of fresh air and I would recommend Super Nutrition Academy to anyone who is tired of the same old ways that just don't make sense anymore.

I think the program as a whole is important because learning one part without the others will not help in understanding our bodies and what they really need to be well. I have to admit, I have not gotten all the way through the whole 12 modules of the academy but, from what I have done I have really enjoyed it. I have also checked out your new podcast series and find it very helpful as well.

I run, bike , lift weights, and hike thinking I could burn more calories than I ingest. Thus I could lose the weight yet still be able to eat any unhealthy food I wanted to when I wanted to because I was active. Ha, ha was I misinformed. Well the Super Nutrition Academy taught me this isn't possible and much more. I learned the basics and more about foods, supplements, exercise, physiology and psychology to name a few topics. This enabled me to not only lose the weight but keep it off because I understand the dynamics of eating the RIGHT foods.

Without the informative and easy to follow modules Yuri presented I would still be spinning my heels trying to decide what diet fad I should try next Super Nutrition Academy is ONLY for people who are motivated and committed to finally mastering the complex world of nutrition in and easy-to-understand format and its impact on your health.

You want an end to the information overload and confusion , and you want to get to the bottom of what really matters to you — your health. Your day can only better after such a great start. Heck, you might even have time for quick workout before work.

Not only do you look great but you feel like you truly deserve to feel — happy and confident! In fact, your zest for life is shining through and inspiring them to do better for themselves as well. But you also feel secure enough to allow yourself to indulge once in a while since you understand the power of balance and moderation.

You know which foods help or hinder you. No temptations can derail you. And if even they did, you would have the confidence and power to get right back up and keep on going without beating yourself up! How do I know? The reports quoted here explain that where there is no stated lower limit in the table below, there is no requirement for that nutrient in the diet.

All percentages are percentages of calories , not of weight or volume. For the same amount of calories, free sugars take up less volume and weight, being refined and extracted from the competing carbohydrates in their natural form. In a similar manner all the items are in competition for various categories of calories.

The representation as a pyramid is not precise, and involves variations due to the alternative percentages of different elements, but the main sections can be represented. The USDA food pyramid was created in and divided into six horizontal sections containing depictions of foods from each section's food group.

It was updated in with colorful vertical wedges replacing the horizontal sections and renamed MyPyramid. MyPyramid was often displayed with the food images absent, creating a more abstract design.

My Plate is divided into four slightly different sized quadrants, with fruits and vegetables taking up half the space, and grains and protein making up the other half. The vegetables and grains portions are the largest of the four. A modified food pyramid was proposed in for adults aged over A vegetable is a part of a plant consumed by humans that is generally savory but is not sweet. A vegetable is not considered a grain, fruit, nut , spice , or herb. For example, the stem , root , flower , etc.

Vegetables contain many vitamins and minerals ; however, different vegetables contain different spreads, so it is important to eat a wide variety of types. For example, green vegetables typically contain vitamin A , dark orange and dark green vegetables contain vitamin C , and vegetables like broccoli and related plants contain iron and calcium. Vegetables are very low in fats and calories , but ingredients added in preparation can often add these. These foods provide complex carbohydrates, which are a good source of energy but provide little nutrition.

While they may serve as a filler in low-fat meal plans, replacing these with nuts and seeds would be a better option. Examples include corn , wheat , pasta , and rice. In terms of food rather than botany , fruits are the sweet-tasting seed -bearing parts of plants, or occasionally sweet parts of plants which do not bear seeds.

These include apples , oranges , grapes , bananas , etc. Fruits are low in calories and fat and are a source of natural sugars , fiber and vitamins. Processing fruit when canning or making into juices may add sugars and remove nutrients. The fruit food group is sometimes combined with the vegetable food group. Note that a massive number of different plant species produce seed pods which are considered fruits in botany, and there are a number of botanical fruits which are conventionally not considered fruits in cuisine because they lack the characteristic sweet taste, e.

A food pyramid's tip is the smallest part, so the fats and sweets in the top of the Food Pyramid should comprise the smallest percentage of the diet. The foods at the top of the food pyramid should be eaten sparingly because they provide calories, but not much in the way of nutrition. These foods include salad dressings, oils, cream, butter, margarine, sugars, soft drinks, candies, and sweet desserts. Dairy products are produced from the milk of mammals , usually but not exclusively cattle.

They include milk, yogurt and cheese. Milk and its derivative products are a rich source of dietary calcium and also provide protein, phosphorus , vitamin A, and vitamin D. However, many dairy products are high in saturated fat and cholesterol compared to vegetables, fruits and whole grains, which is why skimmed products are available as an alternative.

Historically, adults were recommended to consume three cups of dairy products per day. For example, recent research has shown that dairy products are not related to stronger bones or less fractures; on the flip side, another study showed that milk and yogurt consumption results in higher bone mineral density in the hip. Overall, the majority of research suggests that dairy has some beneficial effects on bone health, in part because of milk's other nutrients.

Meat is the tissue — usually muscle — of an animal consumed by humans. Since most parts of many animals are edible, there is a vast variety of meats. Meat is a major source of protein , as well as iron, zinc , and vitamin B Condition measurement has, therefore, been used to monitor changes in animal body reserves over time Nicholson and Sayers, , and rapid appraisal methods have been devised to 'condition score' African cattle for this purpose Module 5 Pullan, ; Nicholson and Butterworth, Intake is the amount of feed voluntarily consumed by an animal.

It is determined by: The measurement of intake is discussed in detail in Part D of this module. Feed selection and palatability. Animals show distinct preferences for particular types of feed. The animals' feed preferences are influenced by feed availability, plant structure, nutrient deficiencies e. The term palatability is a subjective concept and refers to the assumed reason behind an animal's choice of one source of feed over another e.

Selection, on the other hand, is an objective term, referring to the actual choice that is made. The ability of an animal to select feed of an adequate quantity and nutritive value affects its productivity. This is the amount of time a ruminant spends consuming feed. While generally applied to actual grazing on pasture, the definition can be widened to include time spent browsing, consuming stover etc.

Grazing time is determined by the availability and nutritive value of feed and by the management system used Gammon and Roberts, ; Lambourne et al, There is often an inverse relationship between grazing time per day and the quantity and quality of feed available Butterworth, Feed-related concepts These concepts include: The digestibility of a feed determines the amount that is actually absorbed by an animal and therefore the availability of nutrients for growth, reproduction etc.

Apparent digestibility is estimated by subtracting nutrients contained in the faeces from nutrients contained in the dietary intake. Therefore, it does not account for nutrients lost as methane gas or as metabolic waste products excreted in the faeces. True digestibility is estimated by correcting for the endogenous and microbial amount of a nutrient actually lost in the faeces.

The measurement of apparent digestibility is less complex than measuring true digestibility and, therefore, more suited to the requirements of diagnostic livestock systems research. The amount of energy in or the energy content of feed potentially utilisable by animals can be expressed in the form of gross energy GE , digestible energy DE , metabolisable energy ME or net energy NE for maintenance and production.

The relationships between them are as follows: The difference between the dry-matter weight and the weight of the ash remaining is the DOM weight of the feed. Net energy is the energy actually available for maintenance and production after all losses have been accounted for. It is the most precise estimate of a feed's energy value, but, because of the complexities involved, net energy is rarely measured. Digestible energy is commonly taken as an indicator of a feed's energy value because faecal losses are relatively easy to measure.

Metabolisable energy can be approximated by multiplying digestible energy by a factor of 0. Protein is the basic structural material from which all body tissues e.

It is, therefore, essential for production and maintenance and cannot be replaced by other nutrients in the feed. Ruminants are able to synthesise protein from non-protein nitrogen sources e. The nitrogen content of a feed is, therefore, often used to estimate the amount of protein available to the ruminant, which is expressed as the crude protein CP content of a feed and calculated as: This fraction refers to the cell-wall content of feeds and consists of carbohydrates hemicellulose and cellulose and lignin.

Carbohydrates are partially available for digestion by rumen micro-organisms and represent a major source of energy for ruminants. The lignin component of the fibre fraction limits the digestibility of cell-wall carbohydrates.

Crude fibre which is used in the Wende system of feed analysis is a poor estimate of cell-wall content because it does not recover lignin and hemicellulose. Instead, the detergent system of analysis described in Part D below should be used where feasible, although there are other methods for estimating total fibre Van Soest, Minerals are required for tissue growth and the regulation of body functions. So far, 22 mineral elements have been shown to be essential to animal nutrition Little, Table 1.

Vitamins are organic substances required by animals in very small amounts for the regulation of various body processes which ensure normal health and production. Under most conditions, the ruminant is able to synthesise most of its vitamin requirements. A which can be deficient in tropical pastures and crop residues. The synthesis of vitamin B12 requires Co which may also be deficient in these feeds. The specific functions of the different minerals and vitamins are discussed in any text on ruminant nutrition.

Purposes Diagnostic research on animal nutrition problems The nature of nutritional constraints Scope for improvement. During the descriptive phase of livestock systems research, data obtained from informal surveys, secondary data sources and other diagnostic studies can be used to determine the need for further diagnostic research on animal nutrition issues.

The following types of data will often be useful in this respect: Also, the vegetation characteristics of an area e. Evidence of overgrazing on a wide scale will indicate nutrition problems, particularly during the dry season when feed quantity and nutritive value are lowest. For instance, a high proportion of fortes in the diet can usually be taken as an indication that minerals, in particular phosphorus, may not be deficient.

The nature of nutritional constraints If solutions are to be identified, the nature of nutritional problems must be clearly defined. Studying the relationships between nutrition on the one hand and performance, management and grazing conditions on the other hand, as well as other nutritional relationships, might be useful in this context. Relationships between nutrition and animal performance.

By using techniques such as linear regression analysis, the relative importance of the different factors affecting production performance can be compared simultaneously. Table 2 shows how performance could be related to different variables of which nutrition is only one.

Relationships determining the effects of animal nutrition on production performance. Dependent variable production performance Independent influencing variables 1. Fertility rate Seasonal conditions, breed, parity, disease, type of birth, sex of progeny 3. Milk production DM intake, 10 breed, parity, weaning period, disease, lactation length 10 When making comparisons between animals of different size to determine the importance of nutrition as a constraint, DM intake should be expressed in relation to the liveweight and preferably the metabolic weight, i.

When comparing animals of different species, the preferred exponent is LW 0. Various indicators or measures e. Surrogate or substitute variables for feed availability or intake can be used, as well. For instance, seasonal rainfall is often assumed to be an indicator of feed conditions while stocking rate has been used as a substitute for feed intake Abel et al, Relationships between nutrition and management.

The link between management practices and animal nutrition is often pronounced and needs to be understood. Examples of the relationships which might be studied are: Dahl and Sandford, ; Sandford, Crop residues can, for instance, have an important bearing on animal nutrition Bayer and Otchere, , by providing energy to carry stock through the dry season when feed quantity and nutritive value from grazing are low.

The availability of energy from stover will, therefore, influence mortalities and birth rates Powell and Waters-Bayer, ; Reed and Goe, Figure 2 gives a schematic representation of some of the linkages which commonly affect both crop and livestock performance.

Diagrams of this kind are useful in that they force the researcher to think through the system and identify some of the important linkages which exist. From this information, it is often possible to identify the data needs of research more precisely. Example of negative linkages between crop and livestock production in a mixed farming system. Relationships between nutrition and grazing conditions. These include the relationships between: Bayer and Otchere also suggest that grazing time affects calving and weaning percentages for cattle owned by pastoralists in the Nigerian subhumid zone.

This includes the relationships between digestibility end feed quality, and between seasonal conditions rainfall and the nutritive value of feed consumed measured in terms of energy or crude protein content. Such relationships need to be adequately understood if problems are to be correctly identified.

For instance, a positive correlation between digestible energy or dry-matter intake and liveweight gain is commonly observed Ademosun et al, ; Zemmelink et al, Figure 3. While this correlation may correctly imply that energy is a limiting factor in the diet, the availability of energy may itself be limited by some other factor e.

Effective diagnosis thus depends on the identification of the primary limiting nutrient Little, Relationship between intake and liveweight gain in cattle, Mali, Lambourne et al Scope for improvement The scope for alleviating nutritional problems will depend very much on the characteristics of the system being studied. In pastoral systems, where the range vegetation is the major source of feed, improvements in animal nutrition may be virtually impossible without first addressing issues related to land tenure communal grazing 11 and management e.

While in mixed cropping systems, technologies which increase the quantity and nutritive value of stover fed to animals at the end of the cropping season might be applicable Powell It should be remembered that in livestock systems research, the solution to a particular problem may not always be technological. For instance, it may be more important to correct particular aspects of policy before significant improvements in production can be achieved.

Feasible technological solutions to improve animal nutrition may come through one or more of the following pathways: In mixed systems of production, livestock nutrition may be enhanced by improving the quantity and nutritive value of crop residues used by stock through: This involves changing livestock management strategies to match feed availability with livestock feed requirements.

For instance, Wagenaar et al and Wilson and Sayers have shown that change in the timing of births to match feed demands with feed supplies can have significant effects on conception rates and parturition number in sheep and goats.

These involve ranching schemes which aim to improve the management of the range and raise productivity, principally through increasing in the amount of available forage.

The available evidence suggests, however, that such schemes have mostly been unsuccessful in Africa Danckwerts, ; Behnke, The redistribution of water points to better utilise grazing resources is another example of a pasture improvement strategy.

Fodder banks are concentrated stands of forage, often legumes, sown either on natural grass or fallows to provide dry-season supplementary grazing Bayer, ; Mohamed-Saleem, ; Taylor-Powell and Ingawa, However, widespread adoption of forage legumes is constrained by competition for land with food crops, labour shortages during crop operations and lack of adapted species Reed and Goe, Among fodder trees, leucaena and sesbania have been shown to be suitable for animal feed supplementation by the ILCA alley farming programme in Nigeria Atta-Krah, Browse gardens and multipurpose trees have also been tried Reed and Soller, Types of data Animal data Feed data.

The objectives of data collection in this case are to Table 3: With some of these data e. It is recommended that, when such dab are required, the ARC standards should be used. Types of animal data used to diagnose animal nutrition problems. Objective Types of data Production effects Liveweight gain, condition scores, traction power, milk production, wool production Amount of feed consumed Feed intake Composition of feed consumed Oesophageal or rumen fistula samples, faecal samples, grazing behaviour studies selection data Feed data The principle objective, in this case, is to determine the nutritive value of the feed consumed and digested by the animal.

This may also involve an assessment of sources of feed as yet unutilised but with the potential for introduction into the diet. In particular, data will be collected on digestibility, the energy value of feed dry matter, dry organic matter, digestible energy and metabolisable energy , and crude protein content When assessing the nutritive value of feed, differentiation on the basis of season or system of production which affect feed sources and feed availability will often tee useful.

Under certain circumstances see Part D below , data on the mineral content and fibre composition of a diet may be necessary. When determining mineral content, samples of the feed consumed and of blood or bone may be needed.

Methods of data collection Effects of nutrition on animal production performance Composition of consumed feed Feed digestibility Nutritive value of feed.

The discussion in Module 11 of different methods of data collection is generally applicable to all types of diagnostic research, and the user is encouraged to read it before embarking on studies of animal nutrition.

The emphasis here is on those methods which have been tested by ILCA staff. Following the format adopted in Part C of this module, these methods have been grouped into methods used to measure: Effects of nutrition on animal production performance The production performance of an animal often reflects its nutritional status. Liveweight and body condition, for instance, provide a measure of the nutritional response, integrated over weeks or months Lambourne et al, Studies which attempt to isolate the key factors influencing animal production performance may, therefore, be the first step in the diagnosis of animal nutrition problems see Part B above.

If nutrition is identified as the critical constraint to performance, further studies on specific aspects of nutrition related to the animal or the feed may be needed. The various methods used to assess animal production performance are discussed in Module 5, and the reader should refer to it if detailed diagnosis of production performance is envisaged. For instance, there may be data available from range evaluation and animal production studies and farm management surveys, which specifically identify nutrition as the critical constraint to production.

Feed intake Intake, or the amount of feed an animal consumes, can be estimated by using either digestibility data or 'markers'. When such data are available, intake can be estimated by multiplying the dry-matter weight of faeces by a digestibility factor. The factor is known as the feed: Digestibility and intake data can be derived from the indigestible components of a diet, known as 'markers'.

Markers are classified as internal, if they are ordinarily present in the diet e. Synthetic organic substances such as beads, rubber and ribbon have also been used, since they can be easily separated from the feed. Van Soest provides a detailed account of the various markers used to estimate intake and digestibility, and of their advantages and disadvantages. The term 'indicator' is sometimes used instead of 'marker' Dicko-Touré, , Church and Pond, ; Lambourne et al, The formula to estimate faecal output is: An animal is dosed with 50 g of chromic oxide per day to determine its daily faecal output.

The concentration proportion of marker in the dry-faeces sample is 5. The dry-matter weight of faeces excreted per day is g and 5. The proportion of the marker in the diet is 3.

Calculate the DM intake of the animal. These can then be related to such variables as seasonal rainfall, stocking rate, management practices or plant composition to isolate its main determinants.

Summary The normal procedures to estimate DM digestibility and intake are to: This requires the further estimation of faecal output either by total faecal collection or dosing with known quantities of, for instance, chromic oxide. When facilities for laboratory analysis are not available or are inadequate, intake should be calculated on the basis of digestibility.

Simple methods to estimate digestibility are given in the text which follows. Composition of consumed feed There are various methods used to determine what the animal is eating. Those discussed here are: The botanical composition of feed consumed by an animal can be determined by using a surgical fistula inserted into an animal's oesophagus. The food eaten passes into a collection bag attached to the neck, and samples are taken directly from the bag after allowing the animals to graze for not more than two hours before re-inserting the fistula plug.

The oesophageal fistula method provides an accurate indication of the botanical composition of the feed consumed. An illustration of this type of approach is given by McLean et al However, because of salivary contamination of the samples, accurate direct estimates of the chemical composition of feed eaten are restricted to nitrogen, neutral detergent solubles, calcium, magnesium, sulphur and copper Little, ; Dietary phosphorus concentrations can be estimated accurately only from oesophageal extrusa labelled with radioactive P Little et al, It also tends to be time-consuming and costly, and farmers are unlikely to cooperate when their own stock is involved.

Nevertheless, ILCA research workers have used the method in the field. In Kenya, for instance, oesophageal fistulae were fitted to cows which had been purchased from Maasai pastoralists and herded with farmers herds during three seasons in several locations Semenye, a, b. The data obtained on feed composition were then complemented by studies on grazing behaviour of the type discussed below.

Material collected with the fistula method can be used in the determination of digestibility by in vitro estimation procedures see page This method is applicable to both cattle and smallstock and allows direct sampling of the contents of the rumen by means of a cannula surgically inserted into the rumen.

It involves physically emptying the contents of the rumen by hand before the animal goes to graze and then taking samples from the freshly ingested material two to three hours after the animal started grazing. It is therefore more likely to be applicable to on-farmlon-range experiments described in Section 2. Direct observation of grazing habits. The content of food consumed by grazing animals can be guesstimated by following selected animals in a herd or flock at distances which are close enough to observe what is being eaten.

Each selected animal is observed at regular intervals. Two field examples demonstrate the principles. De Leeuw and Chara used the technique to compare goat and sheep browse preferences in mixed Maasai flocks in Kenya. Observations were carried out during the dry season with randomly selected animals being followed for periods of one to two hours by one or two observers who were familiar with the local flora.

Because the animals were familiar with humans, observations could be made at distances of m. The aim was to obtain an equal number of 'hits' for sheep and goat - a 'hit' occurring each time a particular plant species was eaten.

Hits per plant species were then summed and compared with the total number to determine the proportion of each plant eaten. These figures were then used to derive an index of preference or selection. Between and hits were collected for both sheep and goats in each sample flock. Nyerges observed the grazing habits of sheep, by following each for a period of 20 minutes measured by stop watch.

Animals were followed at distances of m and the shrub and ground species consumed including ground litter during the observation period were recorded. Direct observation can also be applied to other studies of animal grazing behaviour, e. These variables can then be related to such parameters as intake, digestibility, stocking rate and distance to water, to isolate the more important determinants of grazing behaviour Lambourne et al, , pp.